sâmbătă, 25 octombrie 2008
All different BUT all equal
Regardless on the fact that we all are different, we have different points of view, different styles of life, we have to share some things, that are common for each of us. If to believe the theory of the american psychologist Abraham Maslow (01.04.1908-08.06.1970) our behaviour is motivated by a list of needs, that have to be acomplished during our different stages of live. He expressed his own conception in A Theory of Human Motivation wich is still actual and nowadays. All the needs are clasified in 5 categories:
1. The 'physiological' needs
2. The safety needs
3. The love needs
4. The esteem needs
5. The need for self-actualization.
The whole system works in the next way: if the physiological needs are relatively well gratified, there then emerges a new set of needs, which we may categorize roughly as the safety needs. Remember the situations when you are hungry, you get very fast nervous and your activity become less productiv. Then if both the physiological and the safety needs are fairly well gratified, then there will emerge the love and affection and belongingness needs. All people in our society (with a few pathological exceptions) have a need or desire for a stable, firmly based, (usually) high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others. By firmly based self-esteem, we mean that which is soundly based upon real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Satisfaction of the self-esteem need leads to feelings of self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world. But thwarting of these needs produces feelings of inferiority, of weakness and of helplessness. Even if all these needs are satisfied, we may still often (if not always) expect that a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what he is fitted for. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization. Usually about this need, we start to think nearly the 40 year of our life, when we want to analyze what actually we have realized during our life. It's not that easy. A lot of people may feel unconfortable, because of being unsatisfied of their results. On the other hand, a lot of people are happy and satisfied.
Some main ideas:
- There are at least five sets of goals, which we may call basic needs. These are briefly physiological, safety, love, 'esteem, and self-actualization. In addition, we are motivated by the desire to achieve or maintain the various conditions upon which these basic satisfactions rest and by certain more intellectual desires.
- These basic goals are related to each other, being arranged in a hierarchy of prepotency. This means that the most prepotent goal will monopolize consciousness and will tend of itself to organize the recruitment of the various capacities of the organism. The less prepotent needs are minimized, even forgotten or denied. But when a need is fairly well satisfied, the next prepotent ('higher') need emerges, in turn to dominate the conscious life and to serve as the center of organization of behavior, since gratified needs are not active motivators.